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  1. Accrual accounting reforms in belgian local governments: a comparative examination
  2. Comparative Issues in Local Government Accounting - كتب Google
  3. Challenges of Local Government Administration in Nigeria: Lessons from Comparative Analysis
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As a matter of facts, one major criticism has been the subjective nature of the comparative indicators Van de Walle, Our analysis proceeds by addressing the challenge of compiling comparable data and assessing how even nearly identical survey instruments can lead to challenges in assessing the adoption and use of performance measures across two countries. Using a quantitative analysis, the aim is to contribute to Study Group on Productivity and Quality's theme of comparisons of public sectors across countries.

Questions that will be directly addressed include: What are the challenges in comparing local government bureaucracies across countries? Can instruments be designed to facilitate this comparison?

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What are the conditions under which PMS is established and succeed? What are the enablers of successful PMS? Does PMS bring to deliver all the desired effects claimed by theory? Keywords: performance measurement, international comparisons, local government, public sector. Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation. Forli' Campus 15, p. Public Economics: Miscellaneous Issues eJournal. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic. By Antonio Afonso , Ludger Schuknecht , By Sanjeev Gupta , Keiko Honjo , By Antonio Afonso and Miguel St. Government Role and the Efficiency of Policy Instruments.

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Accrual accounting reforms in belgian local governments: a comparative examination

Copy URL. The financial managers of governments are knowledgeable about the transactions, events, and conditions that are reflected in the government's financial report and of the fiscal policies that govern its operations. This analysis should provide users with the information they need to help them assess whether the government's financial position has improved or deteriorated as a result of the year's operations.

Financial managers also will be in a better position to provide this analysis because for the first time the annual report will also include new government-wide financial statements, prepared using accrual accounting for all of the government's activities. Most governmental utilities and private-sector companies use accrual accounting. It measures not just current assets and liabilities but also long-term assets and liabilities such as capital assets, including infrastructure, and general obligation debt.

It also reports all revenues and all costs of providing services each year, not just those received or paid in the current year or soon after year-end. In short, the new annual reports should give government officials a new and more comprehensive way to demonstrate their stewardship in the long term in addition to the way they currently demonstrate their stewardship in the short term and through the budgetary process.

The GASB expresses its thanks to the thousands of preparers, auditors, academics, and users of governmental financial statements who have participated during the past decade in the research, consideration, and deliberations that have preceded the publication of this Statement.

Comparative Issues in Local Government Accounting - كتب Google

We especially appreciate the input of those who participated by becoming members of our various task forces, which began work on this and related projects as early as The GASB is responsible for developing standards of state and local governmental accounting and financial reporting that will a result in useful information for users of financial reports and b guide and educate the public, including issuers, auditors, and users of those financial reports.

We have an open decision-making process that encourages broad public participation.

This Statement establishes financial reporting standards for state and local governments, including states, cities, towns, villages, and special-purpose governments such as school districts and public utilities. It establishes that the basic financial statements and required supplementary information RSI for general purpose governments should consist of:. Special-purpose governments that are engaged in only governmental activities such as some library districts or that are engaged in both governmental and business-type activities such as some school districts generally should be reported in the same manner as general purpose governments.

It should provide an analysis of the government's overall financial position and results of operations to assist users in assessing whether that financial position has improved or deteriorated as a result of the year's activities. In addition, it should provide an analysis of significant changes that occur in funds and significant budget variances. It should also describe capital asset and long-term debt activity during the year.

Challenges of Local Government Administration in Nigeria: Lessons from Comparative Analysis

Governments should report all capital assets, including infrastructure assets, in the government-wide statement of net assets and generally should report depreciation expense in the statement of activities. Infrastructure assets that are part of a network or subsystem of a network are not required to be depreciated as long as the government manages those assets using an asset management system that has certain characteristics and the government can document that the assets are being preserved approximately at or above a condition level established and disclosed by the government.

The net assets of a government should be reported in three categories—invested in capital assets net of related debt, restricted, and unrestricted. This Statement provides a definition of the term restricted. Permanent endowments or permanent fund principal amounts included in restricted net assets should be displayed in two additional components—expendable and nonexpendable. The government-wide statement of activities should be presented in a format that reports expenses reduced by program revenues, resulting in a measurement of "net expense revenue" for each of the government's functions.

Program expenses should include all direct expenses. General revenues, such as taxes, and special and extraordinary items should be reported separately, ultimately arriving at the change in net assets for the period. Special items are significant transactions or other events that are either unusual or infrequent and are within the control of management. To report additional and detailed information about the primary government, separate fund financial statements should be presented for governmental and proprietary funds.

Required governmental fund statements are a balance sheet and a statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes in fund balances. Required proprietary fund statements are a statement of net assets; a statement of revenues, expenses, and changes in fund net assets; and a statement of cash flows. To allow users to assess the relationship between fund and government-wide financial statements, governments should present a summary reconciliation to the government-wide financial statements at the bottom of the fund financial statements or in an accompanying schedule.

Each of the fund statements should report separate columns for the general fund and for other major governmental and enterprise funds. Any other fund may be reported as a major fund if the government's officials believe that fund is particularly important to financial statement users. Nonmajor funds should be reported in the aggregate in a separate column.

Internal service funds also should be reported in the aggregate in a separate column on the proprietary fund statements. Fund balances for governmental funds should be segregated into reserved and unreserved categories.

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Proprietary fund net assets should be reported in the same categories required for the government-wide financial statements. Proprietary fund statements of net assets should distinguish between current and noncurrent assets and liabilities and should display restricted assets.

Proprietary fund statements of revenues, expenses, and changes in fund net assets should distinguish between operating and nonoperating revenues and expenses. These statements should also report capital contributions, contributions to permanent and term endowments, special and extraordinary items, and transfers separately at the bottom of the statement to arrive at the all-inclusive change in fund net assets. Cash flows statements should be prepared using the direct method. Separate fiduciary fund statements including component units that are fiduciary in nature also should be presented as part of the fund financial statements.

Fiduciary funds should be used to report assets that are held in a trustee or agency capacity for others and that cannot be used to support the government's own programs.

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Required fiduciary fund statements are a statement of fiduciary net assets and a statement of changes in fiduciary net assets. Interfund activity includes interfund loans, interfund services provided and used, and interfund transfers. This activity should be reported separately in the fund financial statements and generally should be eliminated in the aggregated government-wide financial statements.

To demonstrate whether resources were obtained and used in accordance with the government's legally adopted budget, RSI should include budgetary comparison schedules for the general fund and for each major special revenue fund that has a legally adopted annual budget.

The budgetary comparison schedules should present both a the original and b the final appropriated budgets for the reporting period as well as c actual inflows, outflows, and balances, stated on the government's budgetary basis. This Statement also requires RSI for governments that use the modified approach for reporting infrastructure assets.

Governmental Accounting (Understanding J/E's, For Budget, Revenues, Expenses, Transfers, Closing)

The requirements of this Statement are effective in three phases based on a government's total annual revenues in the first fiscal year ending after June 15, Earlier application is encouraged. If a primary government chooses early implementation of this Statement, all of its component units also should implement this standard early to provide the financial information required for the government-wide financial statements. Prospective reporting of general infrastructure assets is required at the effective dates of this Statement.

Retroactive reporting of all major general governmental infrastructure assets is encouraged at that date. For phase 1 and phase 2 governments, retroactive reporting is required four years after the effective date on the basic provisions for all major general infrastructure assets that were acquired or significantly reconstructed, or that received significant improvements, in fiscal years ending after June 30,